How to chose the thresholds and why they matter

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Classification models are a subset of supervised machine learning . A classification model reads some input and generates an output that classifies the input into some category. For example, a model might read an email and classify it as either spam or not — binary classification. Alternatively a model can read a medical image, say a mammogram, and classify it as either benign or malignant.

Classification algorithms, like logistic regression, generate a probability score that assigns some probability to the input belonging to a category. This probability is then mapped to a binary mapping, assuming the classification is binary (malignant…


How to motivate individuals to excel at their jobs?

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I am often asked questions on how to motivate teams or individuals. They usually take the form of something like “How do you motivate your teams?” or “What do you do with an underperforming team’”. I’ve also encountered one other flavor of this question: “how do you increase the throughput of your teams.” It’s a difficult question, one in which there is no “right” answer. Over the years, I have found that there are a few distinct strategies that are applied in order to get individuals or teams to “get the job done.” …


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One of the invariable truths about startups is in having way more work than the available resources can possibly do. I have experienced two strategies when trying to deal with this conundrum. One is to prioritize and focus. The other is to multi-task, similar to time division multiplexing. One of those works and the other doesn’t.

Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an…


There are two inevitable truths in machine learning: more data and more computational power to train on this data.

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In a recent article I covered a basic architecture covering compute and storage for ML. One of the main assumptions in the architecture I presented was in having all training data consolidated in a single location (storage system) and more critically, that this data is readily available for ML training. What happens then, if we need some data for training, but for a variety of reasons, that data cannot be stored in our environment? Enter Federated Learning.

The approach that I outlined in my article assumed that both data and compute are centralized. Under a centralized approach, all the data…


There are a few important constraints to keep in mind in regards to GPUs.

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Over the past two articles we covered the various activities involved with data collection and storage. These were part of a 3-step process that is outlined below. We now reach the final step, which is concerned with using the data we collected and stored.


Will DeepTech be the spark that transforms how we live?

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My entire career has been in software. I joined Microsoft, fresh out of school, in October 2000 and have been working either as a software developer or more recently in engineering leadership since then. The tech that I experienced is the one that typically starts in a garage, where one or more software developers are furiously coding up an MVP in their garage. The tech that uses familiar tools like Jira, GitHub and leasing infrastructure by the minute on AWS. It’s the “tech” that yielded the likes of Facebook, Amazon, LinkedIn, Google, Microsoft Teams — a product I actually worked…


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In a previous article, I laid out a simple framework to navigate the various challenges involved with using data to build machine learning (ML) models. This framework is illustrated in the diagram below.


How strong are your data jujitsu skills?

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A few weeks ago I hosted a series of roundtable discussions with a group of engineering leaders from Atomico’s portfolio companies. The theme of these discussions was on data, specifically the challenges of data in an AI company. The topic is admittedly broad and open ended, but it is an important one nonetheless.

A significant portion of building AI, or to be more specific machine learning (ML) models, is centered around data. ML models are mostly concerned with getting data, cleaning it, transforming it, visualizing it and finally using it to build models. A recent survey by Anaconda revealed that…


It’s hard, complex, multidisciplinary yet exceptionally rewarding

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My professional software experience has for the most part been in the B2B sector, working products spanning video-conferencing, distributed file systems and SQL engines. My most recent experience at Kheiron is my first foray into AI and healthcare. In a previous article, I covered the differences between AI products and software ones. This article is concerned with the differences I observed in developing software for the healthcare sector.

First a bit of context about the sector, mostly driven from my own impressions with empirical evidence when available.

The healthcare market is massive. In the US alone, this market is estimated…


Most AI products are primarily concerned with making inferencing decisions. An AI model receives some input which will run through the model resulting in some decision, oftentimes called a prediction or inference. Depending on the nature of the AI model, the precision of the decisions it makes can have profound effects on its usage and ultimate success.

Consider a recommendation engine, perhaps one that recommends what movies to watch based on your viewing history. The AI model in this case is making a predictive decision based on your own viewing history. We’re all fairly accustomed to these recommendation engines on…

Karim Fanous

Tech leadership at various early stage startups: Qumulo, Dremio and now Kheiron Medical

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